Vaxzevria (AstraZeneca) COVID-19 vaccine

Immunogenicity

Pre-clinical (animal) trials were conducted in rhesus macaques, mice and ferrets. These trials showed that there were no adverse safety events or evidence of immune enhanced inflammatory disease and robust neutralising antibody and cellular immune responses were triggered. In animals, the vaccine appeared to reduce disease severity, but did not prevent infection or transmission (nasal shedding of the virus still occurred).

Phase 1/2 clinical trials showed antibody response against the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein peaked by day 28 (and remained elevated to day 56) in participants who only received 1 dose of vaccine. Responses following natural exposure to COVID-19 infection were compared with vaccine responses and were in similar ranges.

Phase 2/3 studies showed a clear impact on specific antibody response following a booster dose at day 56. This response was seen across all age groups. There was no increase in the anti-vector antibody responses.

Safety profile

Side effects were more common on the day following vaccination, and were mild to moderate in severity. Pain and tenderness at the injection site (83%), fatigue (68%) and headache (70%) were the most common symptoms in participants receiving Vaxzevria (AstraZeneca). Fever occurred in 18% of trial participants and flu-like symptoms of malaise (61%) and muscle ache (60%) were also common.

Reactions were less common in older adults (aged over 55 years) and following the second dose.

Vaccine Efficacy

Phase 3 US trials showed a vaccine efficacy of 79% at preventing symptomatic COVID-19 and 100% efficacy at preventing severe disease and hospitalisation. Efficacy in participants aged 65 years and over was 80%.

Pooled data from phase 2/3 studies in the UK and Brazil found an efficacy of 66.7% (57.4-74.0) for preventing symptomatic COVID-19 following 2 doses of Vaxzevria and 76% following one dose. Protection did not wane during the initial 3 month period following first vaccination with antibody levels maintained. There were no hospital admissions for COVID-19 in the vaccinated group from 21 days following first vaccination.

A longer prime boost interval (>12 weeks) produced higher efficacy (81.3%) than a short interval (55.1% at <6 weeks).

Post-licensure surveillance

Anaphylaxis

An independent expert review of 7 reported cases in Australia of suspected anaphylaxis following administration of the COVID-19 AstraZeneca vaccine has concluded that there is no increased risk of anaphylaxis associated with the vaccine above the expected rate for any other vaccine. Anaphylaxis is a very rare side effect that can occur with any vaccine.

Thrombosis with thrombocytopenia syndrome

Thrombosis with thrombocytopenia syndrome (TTS), is a rare and new syndrome which has been reported in people who have received an adenoviral vector COVID-19 vaccine (eg. Vaxzevria (AstraZeneca) and Johnson & Johnson/Janssen). The syndrome is distinct from other clotting conditions as it is characterised by thrombosis formation (blood clots) combined with thrombocytopenia (low platelet levels).  Symptoms occur 4-30 days following vaccination. Early recognition can lead to effective treatment.

Capillary leak syndrome

Cases of capillary leak syndrome have been reported following vaccination with Vaxzevria (AstraZeneca). The syndrome results in fluid leaking from capillaries (small blood vessels) into surrounding tissue and can lead to severe organ damage or death if left untreated. A causal link between capillary leak syndrome and the vaccine has not been established, however as a precautionary measure it is recommended that individuals with a history of capillary leak syndrome receive an alternate brand of COVID-19 vaccine.

Guillain-Barre Syndrome (GBS)

Following intensive post-licensure surveillance and investigations by the TGA and other international vaccine regulators, there is growing evidence of a possible link between GBS and Vaxzevria (AstraZeneca). In response to this GBS has been listed as a precaution for those receiving Vaxzevria.

Immune thrombocytopenia (ITP)

An association between Vaxzevria (AstraZeneca) and immune thrombocytopenia (ITP) has been reported. Rates of ITP following vaccination have been reported more frequently than the expected background rates of ITP. A link between COVID-19 vaccines and ITP is currently being investigated.

Resources

Authors: MVEC Education Team

Reviewed by: Rachael McGuire, (MVEC Education Nurse Coordinator) and Francesca Machingaifa (MVEC Education Nurse Coordinator)

Date: September 15, 2022

Materials in this section are updated as new information and vaccines become available. The Melbourne Vaccine Education Centre (MVEC) staff regularly reviews materials for accuracy.

You should not consider the information in this site to be specific, professional medical advice for your personal health or for your family’s personal health. For medical concerns, including decisions about vaccinations, medications and other treatments, you should always consult a healthcare professional.


Vaccine-associated enhanced disease (VAED)

What is it?

Vaccine-associated enhanced disease (VAED) is a rare phenomenon in which a (usually) more severe clinical presentation of an infection that would normally be seen in an unvaccinated person occurs in someone who has been vaccinated. Antibodies that have been generated from vaccination bind to a pathogen and aide in a virus getting more easily into cells than it would on its own. Vaccines that have been found to cause VAED are no longer in use (see below).

Mechanisms for enhanced disease

VAED has previously been observed during clinical trials involving individuals receiving inactivated whole-virus vaccines against respiratory syncytial virus (RSV). Clinical trials showed that children who had received the vaccine and then were later diagnosed with RSV infection developed more serious RSV symptoms. As a result, this vaccine was never approved for general use.

The other vaccine which has been linked to VAED is one of the earlier versions of the measles vaccines in the 1960s. It was found that following vaccination, children were at higher risk of developing an atypical form of measles disease. This vaccine has since been withdrawn, and the current measles-containing vaccines are not associated with the same adverse effects.

In these cases of VAED, the underlying causes remain to be further understood, but possibly relates to an abnormal T-cell (Th2) response.

Assessment and evaluation

It can be difficult to distinguish between vaccine-failure (also known as breakthrough disease) and VAED. Identification of a case of VAED requires the recognition that a clinical presentation is different, atypical, modified or more severe in comparison to the natural disease presentation. Many factors need to be considered when making the assessment, including background rates, age, sex, time post vaccination, duration of disease, clinical course and progression and co-morbidities. Various laboratory and clinical diagnostic parameters can be used to help assess the possibility of VAED, including detailed review of all cases of possible vaccine failure.

Current National Immunisation Program (NIP) vaccines

The vaccines currently available through the NIP are not linked to VAED.

COVID-19 vaccines

There is no evidence to suggest VAED is associated with the current COVID-19 vaccines. On the contrary, more COVID-19 related morbidity and mortality has been observed in unvaccinated populations globally. Ongoing surveillance and long-term vaccine follow-up will continue.

Resources

Authors: Nigel Crawford (Director SAEFVIC, Murdoch Children’s Research Institute), Adele Harris (SAEFVIC Research Nurse, Murdoch Children’s Research Institute) and Georgina Lewis (SAEFVIC Clinical Manager, Murdoch Children’s Research Institute)

Reviewed by: Julia Smith (RCH Immunisation Fellow), Francesca Machingaifa (MVEC Education Nurse Coordinator) and Rachael McGuire (MVEC Education Nurse Coordinator)

Date: November 29, 2022

Materials in this section are updated as new information and vaccines become available. The Melbourne Vaccine Education Centre (MVEC) staff regularly reviews materials for accuracy.

You should not consider the information in this site to be specific, professional medical advice for your personal health or for your family’s personal health. For medical concerns, including decisions about vaccinations, medications and other treatments, you should always consult a healthcare professional.


Vaccine development and safety

Like any medication in development, vaccine candidates must undergo rigorous testing procedures and scientific evaluation to prove not only their effect on the targeted disease, but also to determine their safety, before being licensed and registered for use in vaccination programs. In Australia, the Therapeutic Goods Administration (TGA) is responsible for assessing vaccines and other medicines for use in Australia.

Once vaccines have been introduced into the community, the safety and effectiveness of vaccines then continues to be monitored in the post-licensure phase through active surveillance programs and further trials. This is to ensure that there are no issues that may have been missed during the development phase.

Development phase

During vaccine development, initial safety testing of a vaccine candidate occurs in two stages. Stage one involves preclinical assessment in the laboratory.  Stage two involves the evaluation of the vaccine candidate in three phases of clinical trials. If a vaccine candidate fails the safety tests performed in stage one, it cannot progress further into the stage two clinical trials.

Phase I clinical trials: the vaccine candidate is given to small numbers (25–50) of healthy adults with the primary goal of assessing safety.

Phase II clinical trials: If the vaccine candidate is found to be safe in Phase I, it is then given to hundreds of people to determine: how effectively it stimulates immune responses; to determine the optimal dose regimen; and whether there are any side effects.

Phase III clinical trials: If the vaccine candidate is found to be effective and safe in Phase I and II, it is then given to many thousands of people to test whether it protects large populations from the target disease and to determine if there are any uncommon or serious side effects.

A vaccine must pass all of these phases before it is registered for use by the TGA. Approval of vaccines can take up to 10 years.

Post-licensure phase

Despite the extensive safety testing undertaken before a vaccine is licensed, some side effects are so uncommon, they cannot be detected even after studying a vaccine in thousands of people. For this reason, post-licensure assessment is performed.

Safety and effectiveness continue to be monitored using a variety of mechanisms. These may include:

  • further clinical trials
  • surveillance of the impact of the vaccine on the disease it aims to prevent using networks such as PAEDS
  • surveillance of adverse events following immunisation using systems such as AusVaxSafety and reporting services like SAFEVAC and SAEFVIC

What happens if a problem is suspected?

Any suspected problem with a vaccine signals the need for a thorough investigation by the TGA.

If a suspected problem could be serious, authorities will consider a range of actions including suspending use of the vaccine during the investigation.

COVID-19 vaccine development process

COVID-19 vaccine development is happening faster than usual because of the global impact of the pandemic and the urgent need for a vaccine(s). It is important to note that a candidate COVID-19 vaccine(s) must pass through the same phases of clinical trials and hasn’t missed any of the important steps. Approval will only be given if the vaccine meets the requirements for safety and efficacy.

Provisional registration can be granted using a formal pathway for speeding up the registration of a COVID-19 vaccine candidate using preliminary clinical data. The decision to grant provisional registration is based on a number of factors, and ensures that the safety, quality and effectiveness of the vaccine has been satisfactorily established for its intended use. Following provisional approval, the Therapeutic Goods Administration (TGA) will continue to closely monitor any new data about the vaccine as it becomes available [refer to MVEC: Provisional registration of COVID-19 vaccine(s) in Australia].

 

Resources

Authors: Georgina Lewis (Clinical Manager SAEFVIC, Murdoch Children’s Research Institute) and Rachael McGuire (SAEFVIC Research Nurse, Murdoch Children’s Research Institute)

Reviewed by: Georgina Lewis (Clinical Manager SAEFVIC, Murdoch Children’s Research Institute) and Rachael McGuire (SAEFVIC Research Nurse, Murdoch Children’s Research Institute)

Date: December 2020

Materials in this section are updated as new information and vaccines become available. The Melbourne Vaccine Education Centre (MVEC) staff regularly reviews materials for accuracy.

You should not consider the information in this site to be specific, professional medical advice for your personal health or for your family’s personal health. For medical concerns, including decisions about vaccinations, medications and other treatments, you should always consult a healthcare professional.


Victorian council immunisation sessions

Each local council throughout Victoria offers regular immunisation sessions for the administration of all funded National Immunisation Program (NIP) vaccines. Sessions are free to attend and people of all ages requiring NIP vaccines can be vaccinated. Sessions are run by accredited nurse immunisers with medical support. Some councils may also choose to have additional vaccines such as meningococcal (Nimenrix® or Bexsero®), influenza and chickenpox vaccines available for purchase for those who do not meet the eligibility criteria for funded vaccines [see resources]. All vaccines administered are recorded on the Australian Immunisation Register (AIR).

Please refer to the tables below for contact details of your local council to obtain further information regarding session times.

Metropolitan councils

Council Telephone number Immunisation sessions
Banyule City Council (03) 9490 4222 Banyule immunisation session times
Bayside City Council (03) 9599 4444 Bayside immunisation session times
Boroondara City Council (03) 9278 4444 Boroondara immunisation session times
Brimbank City Council (03) 9248 4000 Brimbank immunisation session times
Cardinia Shire Council 1300 787 624 Cardinia immunisation session times
City of Casey (03) 9705 5200 Casey immunisation session times
Darebin City Council (03) 8470 8562 Darebin immunisation session times
Frankston City Council 1300 322 322 Frankston immunisation session times
Glen Eira City Council (03) 9524 3333 Glen Eira immunisation session times
Greater Dandenong City Council (03) 8571 1000 Dandenong immunisation session times
Hobsons Bay City Council (03) 9932 1000 Hobsons Bay immunisation session times
Hume City Council (03) 9205 2200 Hume immunisation session times
Kingston City Council 1300 653 356 Kingston immunisation session times
Knox City Council (03) 9298 8000 Knox immunisation session times
Manningham City Council (03) 9840 9333 Manningham immunisation session times
Maribyrnong City Council (03) 9688 0145 Maribyrnong immunisation session times
Maroondah City Council (03) 9298 4598 Maroondah immunisation session times
Melbourne City Council (03) 9340 1451 Melbourne immunisation session times
Melton City Council (03) 9747 7200 Melton immunisation session times
Monash City Council (03) 9518 3555 Monash immunisation session times
Moonee Valley City Council (03) 9243 8888 Moonee Valley immunisation session times
Moreland City Council (03) 9240 1111 Moreland immunisation session times
Mornington Peninsula Shire (03) 5950 1000 Mornington immunisation session times
Nillumbik Shire Council (03) 9433 3111 Nillumbik immunisation session times
Port Phillip City Council (03) 9209 6383 Port Phillip immunisation session times
Stonnington City Council (03) 8290 1333 Stonnington immunisation session times
Whitehorse City Council (03) 9262 6197 Whitehorse immunisation session times
Whittlesea City Council (03) 9217 2170 Whittlesea immunisation session times
Wyndham City Council (03) 9742 0777 Wyndham immunisation session times
Yarra City Council (03) 9205 5555 Yarra City immunisation session times
Yarra Ranges Shire Council 1300 368 333 Yarra Ranges immunisation session times

Regional councils

Council Telephone number Immunisation sessions
Alpine Shire Council (03) 5755 0555 Alpine immunisation session times
Ararat Rural City Council (03) 5355 0200 Ararat immunisation session times
Ballarat City Council (03) 5320 5850 Ballarat immunisation session times
Bass Coast Shire Council (03) 5671 2211 Bass Coast immunisation session times
Baw Baw Shire Council (03) 5624 2411 Baw Baw immunisation session times
Benalla Rural City Council (03) 5760 2600 Benalla immunisation session times
Buloke Shire Council 1300 520 520 Buloke immunisation session times
Campaspe Shire Council (03) 5481 2200 Campaspe immunisation session times
Central Goldfields Shire Council (03) 5461 0610 Central Goldfields immunisation session times
Colac Otway Shire Council (03) 5232 9400 Colac-Otway immunisation session times
Corangamite Shire Council (03) 5232 7100 Corangamite immunisation session times
East Gippsland Shire Council (03) 5153 9500 East Gippsland immunisation session times
Gannawarra Shire Council (03) 5450 9333 Gannawarra immunisation session times
Glenelg Shire Council (03) 5522 2211 Glenelg immunisation session times
Golden Plains Shire Council (03) 5220 7111 Golden Plains immunisation session times
Greater Bendigo City Council (03) 5434 6000 Bendigo immunisation session times
City of Greater Geelong (03) 4215 6962 Geelong immunisation session times
Greater Shepparton City Council (03) 5832 9700 Shepparton immunisation session times
Hepburn Shire Council (03) 53482306 Hepburn immunisation session times
Hindmarsh Shire Council (03) 5391 4444 Hindmarsh immunisation session times
Horsham Rural City Council (03) 5382 9777 Horsham immunisation session times
Indigo Shire Council 1300 365 003 Indigo immunisation session times
Latrobe City Council 1300 367 700 Latrobe immunisation session times
Loddon Shire Council (03) 5494 1200 Loddon immunisation session times
Macedon Ranges Shire Council (03) 5422 0333 Macedon Ranges immunisation session times
Mansfield Shire Council (03) 5775 8555 Mansfield immunisation session times
Mildura Rural City Council (03) 5018 8100 Mildura immunisation session times
Mitchell Shire Council (03) 5734 6200 Mitchell immunisation session times
Moira Shire Council (03) 5871 9222 Moira immunisation session times
Moorabool Shire Council (03) 5366 7100 Moorabool immunisation session times
Mount Alexander Shire Council (03) 5472 1364 Mount Alexander immunisation session times
Moyne Shire Council 1300 656 564 Moyne immunisation session times
Murrindindi Shire Council (03) 5772 0333 Murrindindi immunisation session times
Northern Grampians Shire Council (03) 5358 8700 Northern Grampians immunisation session times
Pyrenees Shire Council (03) 5349 1100 Pyrenees immunisation session times
South Gippsland Shire Council (03) 5662 9200 South Gippsland immunisation session times
Southern Grampians Shire Council (03) 5573 0444 Southern Grampians immunisation session times
Strathbogie Shire Council (03) 5795 0000 Strathbogie immunisation session times
Surf Coast Shire Council 1300 610 600 Surf Coast immunisation session times
Swan Hill Rural City Council (03) 5036 2333 Swan Hill immunisation session times
Towong Shire Council (02) 6071 5100 Towong immunisation session times
Rural City of Wangaratta (03) 5722 0888 Wangaratta immunisation session times
Warrnambool City Council (03) 5559 4855 Warrnambool immunisation session times
Wellington Shire Council 1300 366 244 Wellington immunisation session times
West Wimmera Shire Council (03) 5585 9900 West Wimmera immunisation session times
City of Wodonga (02) 6022 9300 Wodonga immunisation session times
Yarriambiack Shire Council (03) 5398 0100 Yarriambiack immunisation session times

For any feedback relating to this page please contact us here.

Resources

Author: Rachael McGuire (SAEFVIC Research Nurse, Murdoch Children’s Research Institute)

Reviewed by: Francesca Machingaifa (MVEC Education Nurse Coordinator)

Date: February 2022

Materials in this section are updated as new information and vaccines become available. The Melbourne Vaccine Education Centre (MVEC) staff regularly reviews materials for accuracy.

You should not consider the information in this site to be specific, professional medical advice for your personal health or for your family’s personal health. For medical concerns, including decisions about vaccinations, medications and other treatments, you should always consult a healthcare professional.


Vaccine confidence

At MVEC we strongly encourage people to seek answers to their questions and to be well informed with evidence-based information. We know that nearly half of all parents have some concerns about immunising their children, ranging from minor concerns to more serious degrees of vaccine hesitancy. Many people also have questions about COVID-19 vaccines for themselves and their families.

There is a lot of information available to people, particularly on the internet, which can be quite overwhelming. There is also a lot of misinformation, and conspiracy theories, and it can be hard to know which information sources to trust and what is true. Research suggests that information alone is not enough to address people’s concerns about immunisation, even when it comes from recommended sources. That is because vaccine conversations matter, and how we discuss vaccines is often just as important as what information is shared.

Talking to people who have questions about vaccines

One of the most effective strategies to address people’s questions and concerns about vaccines is through a discussion with a trusted health care provider like a GP, nurse, paediatrician or midwife. Effective conversations are non-judgemental and help guide people towards accepting vaccination.

Having a combative conversation with a person who has questions about vaccines is never helpful. If possible, try to work out where the person may sit on the vaccine hesitency spectrum. They may have only minor concerns, more serious concerns or they may refuse vaccines all together. This often becomes apparent quite quickly as you start the conversation and helps you tailor your conversation accordingly.

Here are the key steps to have an effective vaccine conversation:

1. Find out all of the person’s questions and concerns

  • Start with an open-ended question, like “What concerns do you have?”
  • Try to just listen and not jump in and correct their beliefs straight away. This is what we call “resisting the righting reflex”
  • Encourage them to share all their concerns before you start responding. They may even mention their most important concern last.
  • At this point, once they have had a chance to list their concerns, summarise them to check your understanding.

2. Acknowledge concerns and share knowledge

  • Not everyone is “vaccine hesitant”. Having questions is very normal, especially with the newer COVID-19 vaccines. People are likely to be more receptive to what you have to say if you acknowledge their concerns without judgement.
  • It is helpful to ask if you can share what you know about vaccine safety and effectiveness and provide some good resources and information. Try to keep your explanations clear and check for understanding.
  • At this point, it is good to reinforce their motivation to accept vaccination.

3. Discuss disease severity

  • It is always good to bring the discussion back to centre on disease severity, rather than focusing exclusively on the vaccines. This reminds people why we are vaccinating and reinforces the benefit.

4. Recommend vaccination

  • Lastly, make a clear and strong recommendation to have the vaccine(s). This reinforces the importance of vaccination and clearly shows that you believe this is the best way to protect the person against vaccine preventable diseases.
  • If it is possible and the person is willing, deliver the vaccine(s) or explain where they need to go to receive them.

5. Continue the conversation

  • If the person is not yet ready to accept vaccination, keep the communication open and invite them back at a later time to continue the conversation.

Talking with friends and family can also have an influence on people’s vaccine hesitancy. If you’re someone who wants to encourage others to vaccinate, you can take some of the strategies we recommend for healthcare providers into your discussions with people in your life.

This seems obvious, but the best approach is not to judge people, correct them, or jump into battle. This just entrenches people’s beliefs and makes them defensive. And they probably won’t trust you or want to talk to you openly about this topic anymore!

 

 

How to tackle misinformation

We’ve all heard people spreading misinformation and myths about vaccines. While it can be tempting to try to correct misinformation whenever you hear it, this can actually give the issue more oxygen. But if you notice that misinformation is spreading widely and beginning to affect people’s vaccination behaviour, it may be time to step in.

If an individual is spreading misinformation, try to speak with them privately. It’s not effective to have a public debate, either in person or online. Acknowledge the emotion and try to look for the truth together.

If you are debunking a particular myth, start by clearly restating the truth. Then, explain why the myth is untrue, and provide an alternative explanation for what the person is experiencing.

For example, if someone believes that the flu vaccine gives them the flu because they feel sick after the vaccine, it’s not enough to simply tell them that is untrue. Explain why this is untrue – the vaccine contains a killed virus that cannot cause the flu. Then follow this with an alternative explanation for the person’s symptoms – this is your body generating an immune response to the vaccine, and these symptoms are much more mild and brief than actual flu symptoms.

Finally, end by restating the truth. People remember what we say first and last, and what we say more than once. Make sure it’s the truth and not the myth that sticks in their minds.

 

 

Resources

Talking to people who have concerns

Communicating about COVID-19 vaccines and vaccine safety

Addressing misinformation or talking about vaccination in online forums

Authors: Margie Danchin (Senior Research Fellow, Murdoch Children’s Research Institute) and Rachael McGuire (SAEFVIC Research Nurse, Murdoch Children’s Research Institute)

Reviewed by: Margie Danchin (Group Leader, Vaccine Uptake Group, Murdoch Children’s Research Institute) and Jess Kaufman (Research Fellow, Vaccine Uptake Group, Murdoch Children’s Research Institute)

Date: June 2021

Materials in this section are updated as new information and vaccines become available. The Melbourne Vaccine Education Centre (MVEC) staff regularly reviews materials for accuracy.

You should not consider the information in this site to be specific, professional medical advice for your personal health or for your family’s personal health. For medical concerns, including decisions about vaccinations, medications and other treatments, you should always consult a healthcare professional.


Varicella

What is it?

Varicella (chickenpox) is a highly contagious infection caused by the varicella-zoster virus (VZV).

What to look for

Infection usually begins with 1-2 days of fever, runny nose and lethargy.

An itchy rash follows, involving fluid filled vesicles (blisters) that can cover any part of the body including inside the mouth, eyelids and genital area. Severe complications can include pneumonia, meningitis and encephalitis.

Varicella in pregnancy can result in skin scarring, ocular anomalies, limb defects and neurological malformations for the infant.

The virus can be reactivated later in life and cause Zoster (Shingles).

How is it transmitted?

Varicella can be transmitted by coughing or sneezing, or from direct contact with the fluid inside the vesicles.

Prevention

Immunisation is the most effective form of prevention. A single dose of the live-attenuated vaccine is currently funded on the National Immunisation Program (NIP) for children at age 18 months of age, however giving a 2nd dose (not funded) provides greater protection. For those ≥ 14 years of age, 2 doses (administered 4 weeks apart) are required for the protection on non-immune individuals.

Post-exposure prophylaxis

If a non-immune individual is exposed to disease, immunisation is recommended within 3-5 days (provided immunisation is not contraindicated). This can reduce the likelihood of varicella infection developing.

Neonates (whose mother develops infection up to 7 days prior to delivery or within 2 days after delivery), infants < 1-month of age (if mother is seronegative), pregnant women, premature infants (while still hospitalised, regardless of maternal serology) or immunosuppressed individuals who are exposed to varicella disease should receive Zoster Immunoglobulin (ZIG).

Repeat doses of ZIG may be given if a person is exposed to varicella again > 3-weeks after the first dose of ZIG.

Resources

Author: Rachael McGuire (Research Nurse, SAEFVIC, Murdoch Children’s Research Institute)

Reviewed by: Rachael McGuire (Research Nurse, SAEFVIC, Murdoch Children’s Research Institute)

Date: July 2020

Materials in this section are updated as new information and vaccines become available. The Melbourne Vaccine Education Centre (MVEC) staff regularly reviews materials for accuracy.

You should not consider the information in this site to be specific, professional medical advice for your personal health or for your family’s personal health. For medical concerns, including decisions about vaccinations, medications and other treatments, you should always consult a healthcare professional.