These COVID-19 vaccine FAQs have been designed to address common queries relating to the AstraZeneca COVID-19 vaccine.

Please also see our other COVID-19 FAQs for more information on other COVID-19 related topics:

For ease of reference, information has been categorised as per the below themes:

This page will be updated on a regular basis as further information becomes available regarding COVID-19 vaccines.

For questions that have not been addressed on this page or our dedicated COVID-19 resource page, please email info.mvec@mcri.edu.au for further clarification.

Thrombosis with thrombocytopenia (TTS)

  • What is thrombosis with thrombocytopenia syndrome?

    Thrombosis with thrombocytopenia syndrome, is a rare and new syndrome which has been reported in people who have received an adenoviral vector COVID-19 vaccine (eg. Johnson & Johnson/Janssen and COVID-19 AstraZeneca).

    The syndrome is distinct from other clotting conditions as it is characterised by thrombosis formation (blood clots) combined with thrombocytopenia (low platelet levels).  Symptoms occur 4-30 days following vaccination. Early recognition can lead to effective treatment.

    For more information please refer to:

  • What is the difference between Tier 1 and Tier 2 thrombosis with thrombocytopenia syndrome (TTS)?

    Tier 1 and Tier 2 definitions have been applied to TTS by the CDC (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention) in the United States. The tiers are defined by the following:

    Tier 1:

    • unusual site of thrombosis (e.g neurological – central venous sinus thrombosis [CVST] or gut – eg splanchnic vein, associated with bowel ischaemia and surgery, portal vein or other rare venous and arterial thromboses)
    • Platelet count <150,000 per microliter
    • Positive (+) heparin-P4 ELISA HIT antibody result is supportive, but not required

    Tier 2:

    • Usual sites of thrombosis such as leg or lungs (e.g. venous thromboembolism, deep vein thrombosis, pulmonary embolism)
    • Platelet count <150,000 per microliter
    • Positive (+) heparin-P4 ELISA HIT antibody result is required

    Tier 1 is more severe, with higher morbidity and mortality than Tier 2. Evidence is emerging that Tier 1 is more common in younger age groups, hence the preferential recommendation for alternative vaccines (in Australia, COVID-19 AstraZeneca is not the preferred vaccine for people aged < 50 years – see the Joint statement from ATAGI and THANZ on Thrombosis with Thrombocytopenia Syndrome (TTS) and the use of COVID-19 Vaccine AstraZeneca for further information).

  • Are there any risk factors for developing thrombosis with thrombocytopenia syndrome (TTS)? eg. age, gender etc

    There have been no known markers identified that either increase or decrease an individual’s risk of developing TTS. This includes having a past history of clots in the leg (DVT), lungs (pulmonary embolus) or heart (myocardial infarction).

    Evidence thus far indicates there is a higher risk of TTS in the younger population (< 50 years of age), although there has been a small number of cases identified in older adults. There is some evidence to suggest that the incidence is higher in women compared to men, although this may be because more vaccine doses have been administered to women in vaccine rollouts worldwide, especially those targeting healthcare professionals.

  • When do symptoms of thrombosis with thrombocytopenia syndrome (TTS) occur?

    Symptoms of TTS have been reported to occur in the 4-30 day time period following administration of a COVID-19 adenoviral vector vaccine (eg. Johnson & Johnson/Janssen or COVID-19 AstraZeneca). Current information suggests that the risk of TTS is much lower following receipt of a second dose.

    Symptoms can include

    • Cerebral venous sinus thrombosis (CVST): persistent headaches (unresponsive to simple analgesia), visual changes, focal neurological symptoms (e.g. movement or sensation changes), seizures, coma, secondary intra-cerebral haemorrhage, confusion, encephalopathy
    • Splanchnic vein thrombosis: abdominal pain
    • Pulmonary embolus: chest pain/significant respiratory symptoms or distress, dyspnoea
    • Deep vein thrombosis: leg pain, redness or swelling
    • Arterial ischaemia: pallor and coldness in limb, myocardial ischaemia
    • Thrombocytopenia: acute onset bruising or bleeding, petechial rash

    NB: These symptoms are different from the common or expected side effects following vaccination which usually occur in the first 24-48 hours and last 1-2 days.

  • I am over 60 years of age and have a history of deep vein thrombosis (DVT’s). Is it safe for me to receive COVID-19 AstraZeneca?

    There is currently no evidence to suggest that having a history of DVT’s or other general thromboembolic disorders predisposes you to developing thrombosis with thrombocytopenia syndrome (TTS) following receipt of an adenoviral vector vaccine such as COVID-19 AstraZeneca. In contrast, there is strong evidence that COVID-19 disease is thrombogenic (promotes clot development) and may cause a variety of thromboembolic events. TTS is a unique condition involving the development of thromboses (blood clots) combined with thrombocytopenia (low platelets).

    Individuals with a history of DVT’s are encouraged to receive a COVID-19 vaccine when offered.

    Refer to the Joint statement from ATAGI and THANZ on Thrombosis with Thrombocytopenia Syndrome (TTS) and the use of COVID-19 Vaccine AstraZeneca for more information.

  • I am taking hormone replacement therapy. Am I at an increased risk of thrombosis with thrombocytopenia syndrome (TTS) if I am given COVID-19 AstraZeneca?

    There is currently no evidence to suggest that taking certain medications or being prone to developing blood clots puts you at increased risk of developing TTS following receipt of COVID-19 AstraZeneca. In contrast, there is strong evidence that COVID-19 disease is thrombogenic (promotes clot development) and may cause a variety of thromboembolic events. TTS is a unique condition involving the development of thromboses (blood clots) combined with thrombocytopenia (low platelets).

    Individuals who are taking hormone replacement therapy are encouraged to receive a COVID-19 vaccine when it is offered.

    For more information please refer to: Joint statement from ATAGI and THANZ on Thrombosis with Thrombocytopenia Syndrome (TTS) and the use of COVID-19 Vaccine AstraZeneca.

  • I am over 60 years of age and have a history of atrial fibrillation putting me at a higher risk of blood clots. Is it safe for me to have COVID-19 AstraZeneca?

    There is currently no evidence to suggest that having a medical condition which increases your likelihood of developing blood clots puts you at a greater risk of developing TTS following receipt of COVID-19 AstraZeneca.

    There is currently no evidence to suggest that having a history of atrial fibrillation predisposes you to developing thrombosis with thrombocytopenia syndrome (TTS) following receipt of an adenoviral vector vaccine such as COVID-19 AstraZeneca. In contrast, there is strong evidence that COVID-19 disease is thrombogenic (promotes clot development) and may cause a variety of thromboembolic events. TTS is a unique condition involving the development of thromboses (blood clots) combined with thrombocytopenia (low platelets).

    Individuals with a history of atrial fibrillation are encouraged to receive a COVID-19 vaccine when offered.

    Refer to the Joint statement from ATAGI and THANZ on Thrombosis with Thrombocytopenia Syndrome (TTS) and the use of COVID-19 Vaccine AstraZeneca for more information.

  • What is the risk-benefit ratio (also known as benefit-risk assessment) when weighing up whether to get vaccinated?

    A benefit-risk assessment is important to conduct when recommending any vaccination. This measures the benefits of vaccination (eg. reduction of morbidity and mortality from the disease) to any potential risks. Also known as a benefit-risk ratio or balance, it will vary with other factors such as age, prevalence of outbreaks in a population and potential exposure to the disease in their workplace. This assessment may differ from individual to individual.

    For COVID-19, older people are at an increased risk of severe disease and death if they contract COVID-19. Younger people with underlying conditions such as immunocompromise, are also at an increased risk of severe disease, which affects their benefit-to-risk balance.

    The absence of COVID-19 in the community also affects this benefit-to-risk balance. Current advice would be reconsidered in the context of an outbreak, as the benefit in preventing COVID-19 would outweigh the risk for most adults.

    For more information on weighing up the potential benefits vs risk of harm please refer to Weighing up the potential benefits against risk of harm from COVID-19 AstraZeneca.

    Whilst the current recommendations in Australia are that Comirnaty™ is preferred vaccine for people under 60, a person in this age group can make an informed decision in conjunction with their healthcare provider to receive a COVID-19 AstraZeneca vaccine based on an understanding of their individual benefit-risk assessment.

  • ATAGI have noted that “people of any age without contraindications who have had their first dose of COVID-19 Vaccine AstraZeneca without any serious adverse events should receive a second dose of the same vaccine``. What constitutes a serious adverse event?

    A serious adverse event following immunisation (AEFI) includes anaphylaxis or thrombosis with thrombocytopenia syndrome (TTS).

    Anaphylaxis to a previous dose of a vaccine is a contraindication to future doses of that same vaccine.

    As a precaution those with a past history of TTS, cerebral venous sinus thrombosis (CVST), heparin-induced thrombocytopenia (HIT), idiopathic splanchnic (mesenteric, portal and splenic) venous thrombosis, anti-phospholipid syndrome with thrombosis, and capillary leak syndrome are advised not to receive COVID-19 AstraZeneca.

    All adverse events should be reported to SAEFVIC. Specialist immunisation advice can be sought by referring patients to the VicSIS.

Allergies

  • ATAGI have noted that “people of any age without contraindications who have had their first dose of COVID-19 Vaccine AstraZeneca without any serious adverse events should receive a second dose of the same vaccine``. What constitutes a serious adverse event?

    A serious adverse event following immunisation (AEFI) includes anaphylaxis or thrombosis with thrombocytopenia syndrome (TTS).

    Anaphylaxis to a previous dose of a vaccine is a contraindication to future doses of that same vaccine.

    As a precaution those with a past history of TTS, cerebral venous sinus thrombosis (CVST), heparin-induced thrombocytopenia (HIT), idiopathic splanchnic (mesenteric, portal and splenic) venous thrombosis, anti-phospholipid syndrome with thrombosis, and capillary leak syndrome are advised not to receive COVID-19 AstraZeneca.

    All adverse events should be reported to SAEFVIC. Specialist immunisation advice can be sought by referring patients to the VicSIS.

  • I am under 60 years of age and allergic to Polyethylene Glycol (PEG) which is an ingredient of Comirnaty™. Can I/should I receive COVID-19 AstraZeneca?

    PEG is an ingredient contained in Comirnaty™ and it is therefore recommended that you are referred to an immunology/allergy/vaccination specialist for immunisation advice.

    NB: Vaccination with Comirnaty™ is contraindicated in people with documented anaphylaxis to PEG.

    For more information refer to MVEC: COVID-19 vaccines and allergy or COVID-19 vaccination – ATAGI clinical guidance on COVID-19 vaccine in Australia in 2021

  • I am under 60 years of age and allergic to Polyethylene Glycol (PEG) which is an ingredient of Comirnaty™. Can I/should I receive COVID-19 AstraZeneca?

    PEG is an ingredient contained in Comirnaty™ and it is therefore recommended that you are referred to an immunology/allergy/vaccination specialist for immunisation advice.

    NB: Vaccination with Comirnaty™ is contraindicated in people with documented anaphylaxis to PEG.

    For more information refer to MVEC: COVID-19 vaccines and allergy or COVID-19 vaccination – ATAGI clinical guidance on COVID-19 vaccine in Australia in 2021

General questions

  • Are people > 60 years of age receiving an “inferior” vaccine?

    Both Comirnaty™ and COVID-19 AstraZeneca are effective vaccines which protect against severe COVID-19 disease and hospitalisation.

    The recommendation by ATAGI does not mean or indicate that there are questions over the effectiveness of the vaccine in any age group.

  • I am under 60 years of age and have had dose 1 of the AstraZeneca vaccine, is it safe to receive dose 2?

    People who have received their first dose of COVID-19 AstraZeneca without any serious adverse events can receive their second dose. This should be done in the recommended time frame of 4-12 weeks between doses. Current information suggests that thrombosis with thrombocytopenia syndrome is more frequently reported following receipt of dose 1 of COVID-19 AstraZeneca.

    For more information refer to ATAGI statement on revised recommendations on the use of COVID-19 Vaccine AstraZeneca.

  • I am under 60 years of age and received COVID-19 AstraZeneca as my first dose, should I/can I have Comirnaty™ as my dose 2 of a COVID-19 vaccine? Or now commence a course of 2 doses of Comirnaty™ and no further doses of AstraZeneca?

    Combined or mixed COVID-19 vaccine schedules are currently not recommended in Australia. More information relating to safety and efficacy, as well as information on appropriate intervals between doses is required. Clinical trials of mixed vaccine schedules are currently underway. Current information suggests that thrombosis with thrombocytopenia syndrome (TTS) is more frequently reported following receipt of dose 1 of COVID-19 AstraZeneca. If a person has received the first dose of COVID-19 AstraZeneca without any serious adverse events such as TTS or anaphylaxis, then they can receive the second dose.

    COVID-19 vaccination is not mandatory, however immunisation is strongly recommended for all who are eligible to receive it. It is important to discuss any queries or concerns with an immunisation provider or your treating health care professional.

  • I am over 60 years of age and have a history of deep vein thrombosis (DVT’s). Is it safe for me to receive COVID-19 AstraZeneca?

    There is currently no evidence to suggest that having a history of DVT’s or other general thromboembolic disorders predisposes you to developing thrombosis with thrombocytopenia syndrome (TTS) following receipt of an adenoviral vector vaccine such as COVID-19 AstraZeneca. In contrast, there is strong evidence that COVID-19 disease is thrombogenic (promotes clot development) and may cause a variety of thromboembolic events. TTS is a unique condition involving the development of thromboses (blood clots) combined with thrombocytopenia (low platelets).

    Individuals with a history of DVT’s are encouraged to receive a COVID-19 vaccine when offered.

    Refer to the Joint statement from ATAGI and THANZ on Thrombosis with Thrombocytopenia Syndrome (TTS) and the use of COVID-19 Vaccine AstraZeneca for more information.

  • I am under 60 years of age and travelling to an area experiencing a current COVID-19 outbreak. Should I have the AstraZeneca vaccine as I am unable to source an alternative?

    ATAGI recommends that COVID-19 AstraZeneca can be administered in adults aged under 60 years of age where the benefits of protection are likely to outweigh the risks of vaccination for that individual. It is important to discuss your individual circumstances with a health care provider in order to make an informed decision. There may be some differences to this advice depending on the state/jurisdiction you live in, so please check with your local Department of Health.

    To read more refer to ATAGI statement on revised recommendations on the use of COVID-19 Vaccine AstraZeneca and ATAGI statement on use of COVID-19 vaccines in an outbreak setting.

  • I am taking hormone replacement therapy. Am I at an increased risk of thrombosis with thrombocytopenia syndrome (TTS) if I am given COVID-19 AstraZeneca?

    There is currently no evidence to suggest that taking certain medications or being prone to developing blood clots puts you at increased risk of developing TTS following receipt of COVID-19 AstraZeneca. In contrast, there is strong evidence that COVID-19 disease is thrombogenic (promotes clot development) and may cause a variety of thromboembolic events. TTS is a unique condition involving the development of thromboses (blood clots) combined with thrombocytopenia (low platelets).

    Individuals who are taking hormone replacement therapy are encouraged to receive a COVID-19 vaccine when it is offered.

    For more information please refer to: Joint statement from ATAGI and THANZ on Thrombosis with Thrombocytopenia Syndrome (TTS) and the use of COVID-19 Vaccine AstraZeneca.

  • I am over 60 years of age and have a history of atrial fibrillation putting me at a higher risk of blood clots. Is it safe for me to have COVID-19 AstraZeneca?

    There is currently no evidence to suggest that having a medical condition which increases your likelihood of developing blood clots puts you at a greater risk of developing TTS following receipt of COVID-19 AstraZeneca.

    There is currently no evidence to suggest that having a history of atrial fibrillation predisposes you to developing thrombosis with thrombocytopenia syndrome (TTS) following receipt of an adenoviral vector vaccine such as COVID-19 AstraZeneca. In contrast, there is strong evidence that COVID-19 disease is thrombogenic (promotes clot development) and may cause a variety of thromboembolic events. TTS is a unique condition involving the development of thromboses (blood clots) combined with thrombocytopenia (low platelets).

    Individuals with a history of atrial fibrillation are encouraged to receive a COVID-19 vaccine when offered.

    Refer to the Joint statement from ATAGI and THANZ on Thrombosis with Thrombocytopenia Syndrome (TTS) and the use of COVID-19 Vaccine AstraZeneca for more information.

  • I am under 60 years of age and I just want to be vaccinated ASAP. Can I have COVID-19 AstraZeneca as it is more readily available?

    Whilst ATAGI preferentially recommends administration of an alternate brand of COVID-19 vaccine (Comirnaty™) in those aged under 60 years, it is not contraindicated. It is important to be informed of common, expected and rarer side effects of vaccination prior to receiving any vaccine. The risk of developing thrombosis with thrombocytopenia syndrome (TTS) following receipt of COVID-19 AstraZeneca is rare with current evidence suggesting a rate of approximately 4-6 cases per 1 million doses of the vaccine administered.

    For advice relating to COVID-19 vaccine administration in the setting of a COVID-19 outbreak please refer to: ATAGI statement on use of COVID-19 vaccines in an outbreak setting

  • I am 61 years of age. Why is COVID-19 AstraZeneca deemed safe for me to receive?

    Like any arbitrary age cut-off, it is acknowledged that there may be limited difference between an individual at age 60 or 61 years. What we do know is that the risk of intensive care admissions and death increases markedly with age, with each decade of life increasing the risk 3-fold. Conversely, the possibility of thrombosis with thrombocytopenia syndrome (TTS) may be higher in younger people, based on currently available data.

    ATAGI have taken this data, along with safety data analysis from other countries such as the UK, other risks such as prevalence of COVID-19 in the Australian population along with any existing COVID-19 outbreaks, to calculate an age-specific benefit-to-risk balance for the Australian population. This has resulted in a current age cutoff of 60 years old in the current recommendations.

  • What is the risk-benefit ratio (also known as benefit-risk-assessment) when weighing up whether to get vaccinated?

    A benefit-risk assessment is important to conduct when recommending any vaccination. This measures the benefits of vaccination (eg. reduction of morbidity and mortality from the disease) to any potential risks. Also known as a benefit-risk ratio or balance, it will vary with other factors such as age, prevalence of outbreaks in a population and potential exposure to the disease in their workplace. This assessment may differ from individual to individual.

    For COVID-19, older people are at an increased risk of severe disease and death if they contract COVID-19. Younger people with underlying conditions such as immunocompromise, are also at an increased risk of severe disease, which affects their benefit-to-risk balance.

    The absence of COVID-19 in the community also affects this benefit-to-risk balance. Current advice would be reconsidered in the context of an outbreak, as the benefit in preventing COVID-19 would outweigh the risk for most adults.

    For more information on weighing up the potential benefits vs risk of harm please refer to Weighing up the potential benefits against risk of harm from COVID-19 AstraZeneca.

    Whilst the current recommendations in Australia are that Comirnaty™ is preferred vaccine for people under 60, a person in this age group can make an informed decision in conjunction with their healthcare provider to receive a COVID-19 AstraZeneca vaccine based on an understanding of their individual benefit-risk assessment.

  • Can I get a blood test to check my immune response from the first dose and avoid the need for a second dose?

    COVID-19 serology is not routinely available following vaccination and is not able to inform the decision to proceed with a second dose. Due to the novel nature of SARS-CoV-2, a correlate of protection has not yet been established for COVID-19 in humans.

    Data from clinical trials demonstrated that a 12-week interval between 2 doses of COVID-19 AstraZeneca provided a significant increase in the immune response and longer-term protection.

    Refer to COVID-19 vaccination- ATAGI clinical guidance on COVID-19 vaccine in Australia in 2021 for more information.

  • How much protection do I get from 1 dose of COVID-19 AstraZeneca?

    The level of protection gained from a single dose of COVID-19 AstraZeneca was assessed during clinical trials in an exploratory analysis that included participants who had received one dose. Protection was 73%, with the 95% CI from 49% and 86%, starting from 3 weeks after the first dose. This analysis reflects the short term efficacy and does not demonstrate the duration of protection. It is important to note that COVID-19 AstraZeneca is provisionally licensed by the Therapeutic Goods Administration as a two dose schedule.

    Refer to COVID-19 vaccination- ATAGI clinical guidance on COVID-19 vaccine in Australia in 2021 or COVID-19 AstraZeneca Product Information for more information.

  • I’m unsure about having COVID-19 AstraZeneca, can I wait for an alternate vaccine brand?

    There is no certainty regarding when additional alternate vaccine brands will be available in Australia.

    Whilst the Australian government have announced that an additional 20 million doses of Comirnaty™ have been secured, these will not be available until later in 2021.

    Similarly, an agreement is in place for the supply of the Moderna COVID-19 vaccine. This vaccine is yet to receive registration by the TGA and must be manufactured overseas before supply will reach Australia. This is not anticipated to occur until late 2021.

    There is an advance purchase agreement for the Novavax vaccine candidate which is still in phase III trials. Once trials have been completed, if proven safe and effective, this vaccine would still need to obtain provisional registration prior to any rollout in Australian. Doses of Novavax vaccine will be manufactured overseas and as such availability will be depend on the ability to import doses.

    In making a decision to delay vaccination it is important to be aware of the potential for a COVID-19 outbreak. While Australia currently has minimal community transmission of COVID-19, this can change quickly. Factors to consider include winter months approaching, high rates of global transmission, the emergence of new variants of the virus, as well as the potential for future changes to Australia’s border controls.

  • ATAGI have noted that “people of any age without contraindications who have had their first dose of COVID-19 Vaccine AstraZeneca without any serious adverse events should receive a second dose of the same vaccine``. What constitutes a serious adverse event?

    A serious adverse event following immunisation (AEFI) includes anaphylaxis or thrombosis with thrombocytopenia syndrome (TTS).

    Anaphylaxis to a previous dose of a vaccine is a contraindication to future doses of that same vaccine.

    As a precaution those with a past history of TTS, cerebral venous sinus thrombosis (CVST), heparin-induced thrombocytopenia (HIT), idiopathic splanchnic (mesenteric, portal and splenic) venous thrombosis, anti-phospholipid syndrome with thrombosis, and capillary leak syndrome are advised not to receive COVID-19 AstraZeneca.

    All adverse events should be reported to SAEFVIC. Specialist immunisation advice can be sought by referring patients to the VicSIS.

  • I am over 60 years of age and my GP has recommended that I be immunised with Comirnaty™. What happens now?

    Due to limits in supply of COVID-19 vaccines, distribution is currently based on the priority groups decided by the Commonwealth. Comirnaty™ is the preferred vaccine for those aged 16-59 years and COVID-19 AstraZeneca available for individuals 60 years and over.
    There are a very small subset of individuals over 60 years, who may also be recommended to receive a Comirnaty™. This currently is only the case for:
    • Individuals who have experienced a serious adverse event following a previous dose of COVID-19 vaccine (eg. thrombosis with thrombocytopenia syndrome (TTS) or immediate (within 2 hours) and generalised symptoms of possible allergic reaction to a previous dose of COVID-19 vaccine
    • An individual at higher risk of developing an adverse event following a COVID-19 vaccination such as:
      • Those with a history of cerebral venous sinus thrombosis (CVST), heparin-induced thrombocytopenia (HIT), idiopathic splanchnic (mesenteric, portal and splenic) venous thrombosis, anti-phospholipid syndrome with thrombosis, and capillary leak syndrome
      • Anaphylaxis or generalised allergic reaction (without anaphylaxis) to any component of the COVID-19 vaccine to be administered
      • A history of PEG or polysorbate 80 related allergic reactions
      • A systemic mast cell activation condition with a raised tryptase who have been unable to tolerate previous intramuscular injections due to recurrent anaphylaxis.
    If you meet this criteria then you can be referred to a VicSIS clinic for assessment and immunisation advice prior to vaccination.
  • I have a history of capillary leak syndrome, can I have the COVID-19 AstraZeneca vaccine?

    An extremely rare relapsing-remitting condition known as capillary leak syndrome has been reported overseas following vaccination with COVID-19 AstraZeneca. The syndrome results in fluid leaking from capillaries (small blood vessels) into surrounding tissue and can lead to severe organ damage or death if left untreated.

    In two of the reported cases there was a previous history of capillary leak syndrome. As triggers for relapse are not well understood, the manufacturer of COVID-19 AstraZeneca has updated the product information advising it is not recommended that the vaccine be administered to people with a history of capillary leak syndrome. Individuals with a history of capillary leak syndrome should be referred to their closest VicSIS clinic for further assessment.

    For further information refer to the following link:

    TGA: COVID-19 weekly safety report

Authors: Daniela Say (MVEC Immunisation Fellow), Georgina Lewis (SAEFVIC Clinical Manager, Murdoch Children’s Research Institute), Rachael McGuire (MVEC Education Nurse Coordinator) and Francesca Machingaifa (MVEC Education Nurse Coordinator)

Reviewed by: Rachael McGuire (MVEC Education Nurse Coordinator) and Francesca Machingaifa (MVEC Education Nurse Coordinator)

Date: July 20, 2021

Materials in this section are updated as new information and vaccines become available. The Melbourne Vaccine Education Centre (MVEC) staff regularly reviews materials for accuracy.

You should not consider the information in this site to be specific, professional medical advice for your personal health or for your family’s personal health. For medical concerns, including decisions about vaccinations, medications and other treatments, you should always consult a healthcare professional.