POTS (postural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome) and immunisation


Postural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome (POTS) is a syndrome where individuals experience a cluster of symptoms including an inappropriate level of tachycardia (rapid heartbeat) upon standing. The condition is more common in females, especially adolescents and young adults. There can be a number of associated symptoms, including dizziness, weakness, vision changes, difficulty concentrating, sleep disturbances or nausea.

Although the pathophysiology of POTS is yet to be fully understood, it is thought to be due to an abnormal autonomic nervous system response. When changing positions from sitting to standing, gravity sends blood to the legs and pelvis activating the sympathetic (fight or flight) nervous system, releasing noradrenaline. This tightens bloods vessels in the lower body so that blood is moved back to the heart, slightly increasing the heart rate, usually all in under a second, keeping blood pressure and bloody supply to the brain stable. In individuals with POTS, this process does not work as well as it should and the brain compensates by increasing the heart rate.

POTS can have an impact on quality of life, with many people experiencing both physical symptoms as well as other effects on mood, cognition and sleep. However, most cases can be successfully managed with lifestyle modifications. Medications are only required in rare circumstances.

POTS and vaccines

A diagnosis of POTS is not a contraindication to receiving vaccinations. In fact, some cases of POTS are thought to occur following an acute infection, some of which are vaccine-preventable. Therefore it is important that any individual who has a diagnosis of, or is concerned about, POTS should receive all recommended vaccinations.

人乳头瘤病毒 (HPV)

There have been concerns previously after a small number of case reports described POTS being diagnosed following human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination. However, this has been thoroughly assessed by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and after examining the data from more than 80 million doses of vaccines, no causal link has been established between HPV vaccines and POTS.


There has not been an established link between COVID-19 vaccines and an increased risk of developing POTS. In fact, there have been reports of POTS developing after COVID-19 infection and POTS has been recognised as a post-covid condition (colloquially known as long COVID). Therefore being vaccinated against COVID-19 is recommended for individuals concerned about developing this condition.


For individuals with a previous diagnosis of POTS who are concerned for a worsening of their condition after vaccination, it is important to consider that most vaccine side effects are mild and transient. Overall the benefits of vaccination are likely to far outweigh the risks. However, any concerns should be discussed with an individual’s treating healthcare practitioner.


作者: Julia Smith (RCH Immunisation Fellow)

日期: September 2022





脊髓灰质炎(脊髓灰质炎)是由 3 种脊髓灰质炎病毒(血清型 1、2 或 3)之一的胃肠道(肠道)感染引起的。脊髓灰质炎病毒是 RNA 肠道病毒,来自 小核糖核酸病毒科 家庭。

Once an individual is infected, the poliovirus replicates in the gut and enters the bloodstream via lymphoid tissue where it can then cause symptoms in the central nervous system.


Approximately 70% of polio infections are asymptomatic or present as a non-specific febrile illness. In symptomatic cases an individual may experience fever, headache, gastrointestinal disturbance (nausea and vomiting) or malaise. In severe infections muscle pain and stiffness of the neck and back can occur.

Paralysis typically presents asymmetrically and can be life threatening when the respiratory and swallowing muscles are affected. The extent of paralysis is usually seen within 3-4 days of symptom onset and any existing paralysis present after 60 days is likely to be permanent. It is estimated that flaccid paralysis occurs in less than 1 percent of all polio cases.

A recurrence of muscle weakness in the years after an initial polio infection is known as post-polio syndrome. It is attributed to a progressive loss or dysfunction of motor neurons as opposed to a persistent or reactivated infection.


Wild polio is transmitted through contact with the faeces or saliva of an infected person and is most often associated with conditions of poor sanitation.

The incubation period of polio is 3-35 days, with a person infectious during the 7-10 days prior to the onset of symptoms. Following acute infection, a person can continue to excrete the polio virus for up to 6 weeks in their faeces, or 2 weeks in saliva.


Polio infection predominantly occurs in children with the greatest burden of disease affecting those less than 5 years of age (80-90% of cases).

Global vaccination programs and high rates of immunisation have shown great success with the near eradication of wild polio worldwide. A total of 350,000 infections were reported in 1988 across 125 countries and in 2021 this was reduced down to 6 reported cases across countries including Pakistan and Afghanistan. The COVID-19 pandemic has greatly impacted these vaccination programs and since 2022 a resurgence of case across many countries (including the United States and the UK) have been reported, largely in pockets of unimmunised communities.


Vaccination remains the most effective measure in disease prevention with protection available in Australia through the administration of a course of inactivated vaccines. Polio vaccination is funded on the National Immunisation Program (NIP) as a combination vaccine for children at:

  • 6 weeks, 4 months and 6 months – Infanrix® hexa/Vaxelis®
  • 4 years – Infanrix® IPV/Quadracel®

Individuals who missed a dose or who have an incomplete vaccine history should be offered immunisation to ensure that they are protected. Catch up vaccines are funded for some individuals.

Completing a primary course of vaccination generally provides life-long protection and booster doses are not routinely indicated for the broader population. However, they may be indicated for travellers visiting countries with known cases of polio.


The oral live-attenuated polio vaccine is no longer available in Australia due to the potential low risk (1 case per 2.4 million doses) of Vaccine Associated Paralytic Poliomyelitis (VAPP), also known as Vaccine Derived Poliovirus (VDPV). Following receipt of the oral polio vaccine some of the vaccine virus may be shed in a person’s faeces for up to 6 weeks. In areas of low vaccine coverage this has the potential to cause disease in an unvaccinated individual.


作者: Rachael McGuire(MVEC 教育护士协调员)

审阅者:Rachael McGuire(MVEC教育护士协调员)

日期: 7 月 4, 2023





Pneumococcal disease is caused by infection with the bacteria 肺炎链球菌 (pneumococcus), which can live in the nose and throat (nasopharynx). In most cases it is considered part of the normal flora and generally does not cause illness or disease. However, in some cases the bacteria may grow and spread to other parts of the body that would normally be sterile, causing invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD), severe infections and complications. The bacteria can also cause non-invasive pneumococcal disease (non-IPD), for example, conjunctivitis and pneumonia.

There are more than 95 different recognised serotypes of 肺炎链球菌 that have a distinct polysaccharide capsule (encapsulated strains). The capsule protects the bacteria from being easily destroyed by the body’s immune system. Encapsulated strains are almost exclusively the cause of IPD. Non-encapsulated strains can also cause IPD; however, this is more likely in immunocompromised individuals. 


The incubation period of pneumococcal disease is 1 to 3 days.

症状 will vary depending on the site of infection and can include:

  • 发烧 
  • headaches and sinus pain 
  • earache 
  • cough and coryza (runny nose). 

Clinical signs and symptoms of pneumococcal disease cannot be distinguished from other bacterial infections without laboratory testing.

Pneumococcal infection can lead to sinusitis, otitis media (ear infections) and pneumonia (lung infections). Sometimes infection can result in meningitis (inflammation of the tissue surrounding the brain and spinal cord), pneumonia with empyema (pus collection), septicaemia (blood infection), osteomyelitis (bone infection) and joint infections. IPD can have long-term consequences, such as hearing loss, kidney failure, loss of limbs or intellectual disability.


Pneumococcal is spread by direct contact with the respiratory droplets (e.g. saliva or mucus) produced from coughing or sneezing, for example. Contact with contaminated items such as tissues can also be a source of infection.

Pneumococcal bacteria can live harmlessly at the back of the nose or throat (asymptomatic nasopharyngeal colonisation). This means individuals can be asymptomatic carriers and may transmit the bacteria to others without knowing. Between 20–40% of children and 5–10% of adults are asymptomatic carriers of pneumococcal bacteria. Whether the presence of pneumococcal bacteria leads to IPD depends on the virulence of the specific serotype and the individual’s immune response.

The infectious period is presumed to last until secretions no longer contain the bacteria in significant numbers, or for 24 to 48 hours after commencing antibiotics. Note that some strains of pneumococci bacteria are resistant to antibiotics.


Pneumococcal disease is a leading cause of serious illness and death among Australian children under 2 years of age and older people. Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander children in central Australia have the highest reported rates of IPD worldwide.  

The introduction of vaccines has led to large decreases in pneumococcal disease incidence. Despite this, the global burden remains significant; it is estimated that around one million people die from pneumococcal disease worldwide every year. Much of the IPD burden results from serotypes not targeted by current vaccines. 

Immunocompromised individuals, (such as people with functional asplenia or people taking immunosuppressant medications) and individuals with congenital heart disease, are at the highest risk of IPD. A full list of at-risk conditions can be found in The Australia Immunisation Handbook: Risk conditions for Pneumococcal Disease.


There are two pneumococcal vaccines currently available on the National Immunisation Program (NIP) in Australia: 

  • Prevenar 13 is a conjugate vaccine (13vPCV), providing protection against 13 different serotypes of pneumococcal (1, 3, 4, 5, 6A, 6B, 7F, 9V, 14, 18C, 19A, 19F, 23F). It is available on the NIP for individuals 6 weeks of age and older 
  • Pneumovax 23 is a polysaccharide vaccine (23vPPV), providing protection against 23 serotypes of pneumococcal (1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6B, 7F, 8, 9N, 9V, 10A, 11A, 12F, 14, 15B, 17F, 18C, 19A, 19F, 20, 22F, 23F and 33F). It is available on the NIP as an additional recommendation for individuals over 4 years who are at increased risk of IPD (it is not recommended for those under 2 years due to poor immunogenicity in this population).  

Both these vaccines are administered intramuscularly.

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§ If under 5 years and not up to date with NIP recommendations, refer to The Australian Immunisation Handbook for 13vPCV catch up advice
Ω No more than 4 lifetime doses of 13vPCV
^ If 23vPPV is inadvertently given prior to required dose of 13vPCV, wait 12 months before administering 13vPCV
Σ No more that 2 lifetime doses of 23vPPV
β 23vPPV must be minimum of 8 weeks after last dose of 13vPCV.
Grey shaded boxes not registered for use in this age group.

Co-administration with other vaccines

肺炎球菌 vaccines can be co-administered with other vaccines on the NIP.


Common side effects after receiving a pneumococcal vaccine include fever, irritability, lethargy, injection site reactions (ISRs) and body aches. 

In children, ISRs are commonly reported as occurring within 24 to 48 hours following immunisation. In adults, Prevenar 13 is associated with delayed-onset ISRs (occurring more than 3 days after vaccination), particularly in those who have previously received Pneumovax 23. 

ISRs are not a sign of allergy or local infection. Therefore, antihistamines, steroids or antibiotics are not required. 
A history of ISRs following previous pneumococcal vaccines is not a contraindication to further doses. 

Refer to the MVEC:注射部位反应 reference page for further information. 

作者: Mel Addison (SAEFVIC Research Nurse, Murdoch Children’s Research Institute), Georgina Lewis (Clinical Manager SAEFVIC, Murdoch Children’s Research Institute), Rachael McGuire (MVEC Education Nurse Coordinator), Teresa Lazzaro (Paediatrician, the Royal Children’s Hospital)

审核人: Katie Butler (MVEC Education Nurse Coordinator) and Rachael McGuire (MVEC Education Nurse Coordinator)

日期: February 2024


You should not consider the information on this site to be specific, professional medical advice for your personal health or for your family’s personal health. For medical concerns, including decisions about vaccinations, medications and other treatments, you should always consult a healthcare professional.



药剂师免疫接种员是已完成免疫接种的注册药剂师 附加训练 这使他们能够向特定的患者群体注射批准的疫苗。这提高了社区疫苗的可及性,这对于限制疫苗可预防疾病的传播尤为重要。



药剂师免疫接种者受当地司法管辖区的政策和程序的约束。有关维多利亚州药剂师要求的更多信息,请参阅 维多利亚州药剂师管理的疫苗接种计划指南.






作者: Rachael McGuire(默多克儿童研究所 SAEFVIC 研究护士)、Annie Cobbledick(皇家儿童医院免疫药剂师)、Nigel Crawford(默多克儿童研究所 SAEFVIC 主任)、Helen Pitcher(卫生与公众服务部免疫科)和 Linny Nguy(卫生与公共服务部免疫科)

审阅者:Rachael McGuire(MVEC教育护士协调员)

日期: 1 月 30, 2023





犹太信仰的领袖们已经宣布,对于遵守犹太信仰的人来说,药物中使用猪肉衍生的添加剂是允许的。来自英国 Kashrus 和药物信息服务的拉比亚伯拉罕阿德勒建议:

伊斯兰医学组织的学者还确定,原始猪肉产品转化为面筋的过程对其进行了充分的改变,从而允许穆斯林信仰的观察者接种疫苗。世界卫生组织东地中海区域办事处 2001 年的一封信报告说:


如果对疫苗中的猪产品有任何疑问,请联系 [email protected]


作者: Rachael McGuire(默多克儿童研究所 SAEFVIC 研究护士)、Nigel Crawford(默多克儿童研究所 SAEFVIC 主任)和 Georgie Lewis(默多克儿童研究所 SAEFVIC 临床经理)

日期: 2019 年 2 月





Prematurity, particularly extreme prematurity (< 28-weeks gestation) and low birth weight infants often have associated chronic (special risk) medical conditions. This can be associated with prolonged hospitalisation and frequent clinic visits. These are some of the reasons premature infants are at a greater risk of vaccine preventable diseases (VPDs) and their complications. Preterm infants may also not respond as well to some vaccines (e.g. Hepatitis B).


Infants should be immunised according to the recommended immunisation schedule based on their chronological age as opposed to their corrected age. This is because it is important to minimise the window preterm infants are not protected from VPDs. Specific special risk medical conditions, as well as birth weight need to be taken into account as extra vaccines may be required .

It should be noted that the Rotavirus immunisation must be given within a strict time frame, with the first dose required before turning 15-weeks (chronological age) and the second dose before 25-weeks of age.

Additional vaccines recommended:

< 28-weeks gestation


  • Infants born at < 28-weeks gestation are recommended to receive 4 doses of 13vPCV and 2 doses of 23vPPV
    • 13vPCV in a 4-dose schedule at 2, 4, 6 and 12-months of age (the first dose may be given as early as 6-weeks of age)
    • 2 doses of 23vPPV; 1 dose at 4-years of age and another dose at least 5 years later

< 32-weeks gestation and/or < 2000g birth weight


  • Hepatitis B vaccine should be given at 12-months of age

Additional risk condition vaccine recommendations

  • Influenza vaccine should be given annually from 6 months of age
  • Meningococcal vaccines (MenB and MenACWY) are now funded under the NIP for people of all ages with medical conditions associated with the highest risk of invasive meningococcal disease



It is recommended that family members of premature infants be fully up to date with their immunisations including influenza and pertussis boosters. This concept of ‘cocooning’ will help protect vulnerable preterm infants from VPDs.

The whooping cough (pertussis) vaccine is free and recommended for pregnant women and can be given anytime between 20-32 weeks of each pregnancy. It should be given as early as possible (from 20 weeks) to women who have been identified as being at high risk of early delivery to protect baby in the first months of life when they are too young to be vaccinated.

Influenza vaccination in pregnancy is safe and strongly recommended in avoiding complications of influenza disease. It can be administered at any stage of pregnancy and not only aims to protect the expectant mother from disease, but also to provide protection to the infant once born. Babies less than 6-months of age are at greatest risk of disease and death from influenza and maternal vaccination will provide protection to babies for the first few months of life until they can be immunised against influenza from 6-months of age.


作者:Nigel Crawford(默多克儿童研究所SAEFVIC主任)和Rachael McGuire(默多克儿童研究所SAEFVIC研究护士)

审核人: Francesca Machingaifa (SAEFVIC Research Nurse, Murdoch Children’s Research Institute) and Georgina Lewis (Clinical Manager SAEFVIC, Murdoch Children’s Research Institute)

日期: 2020 年 7 月





Pertussis (whooping cough) is a highly contagious, respiratory disease caused by an infection with the bacterium Bordetella pertussis. The bacteria attach to the cilia (tiny, hair-like structures) that line the upper respiratory system. The bacteria release toxins, which damage the cilia and cause airways to swell. Pertussis infection is usually more serious in infants under 6个月, but it can affect people of any age.


Symptoms begin 6 to 20 days after exposure and initially include rhinorrhoea (runny nose), malaise and a non-specific cough (the catarrhal phase). Approximately one week later, periods of coughing increase with intensity (the paroxysmal phase). A characteristic deep gasp (or “whoop”) may be heard on inspiration, but this is not present in all infections.

During or just following an episode of paroxysmal coughing, babies may have a period of apnoea where they stop breathing for a short period. This may be associated with some colour changes where their skin may appear blue or dusky, especially around the mouth.

Complications of pertussis in infants can include vomiting and difficulty feeding due to prolonged paroxysmal coughing episodes. Rare complications of pertussis in infants include pneumonia and encephalitis, which can be fatal. Complications in older children and adults can include fainting episodes, sleeplessness and rib fractures due to paroxysmal coughing episodes.


Transmission of pertussis is through the inhalation of infected respiratory secretions that have been made airborne by coughing, sneezing and speaking. Pertussis is highly contagious, with one infected individual likely to transmit infection to 70–100% of their household members. Some people with mild symptoms of pertussis may be unaware they are infected, but can still spread the bacteria to others. Humans are the only known reservoir for pertussis.

The incubation period is 1 to 3 weeks. Without treatment, people with pertussis are considered infectious just prior to symptom onset and for 21 days thereafter. The infectious period is reduced to 5 days if a course of targeted antibiotics is completed.


Australia has historically experienced pertussis epidemics every 3 to 4 years. There is a seasonal pattern to pertussis infections with most cases reported in the spring and summer months.

Infants under 6 months of age have the highest rates of hospitalisation and death from pertussis infection. Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander children under 5 years have higher rates of pertussis infection and hospitalisation compared with non-Indigenous children of the same age.

With the introduction of the maternal pertussis vaccination program in 2015, there has been a significant reduction in young infants infected with pertussis and a substantial reduction in both morbidity and mortality associated with infection. In Australia, the incidence of pertussis infections in all age groups has continued to decline. Between 2016 and 2018, infants under 2 months of age had the lowest incidence of disease, and children aged 9 to 11 years had the highest incidence of disease.


Vaccination against Bordetella pertussis is the most effective public health measure for the prevention of pertussis for both vaccine recipients (direct effect), and among unimmunised populations (indirect ‘herd’ effect)Vaccination of people Also provide short-term, passive protection to infants through the transplacental transfer of antibodies.

Pertussis vaccination is only available in Australia in combination with diphtheria and tetanus. Vaccines may also include protection against poliomyelitis, hepatitis B and haemophilus influenzae type B.

The pertussis vaccines available in Australia are acellular, meaning they are made using pertussis toxin and/or components of pertussis bacterium. In contrast, whole-cell pertussis vaccines are first generation pertussis vaccines that are made using an entire bacterium that has been inactivated. While whole cell pertussis vaccines are still available internationally, they were phased out in Australia in 1997, in favour of acellular pertussis vaccines.


As per the National Immunisation Program (NIP), a primary course of pertussis vaccination is given at 6 weeks, 4 months, and 6 months of age (Infanrix Hexa/瓦克斯利斯).


Booster doses are scheduled to be administered at:

  • 18 months (Infanrix/Tripacel)
  • 4 years (Infanrix-IPV/Quadracel)
  • 12 to 13 years of age/Year 7 high school program (Boostrix/Adacel)
  • Pregnant people at 20–32 weeks gestation (every pregnancy, regardless of how closely spaced).

In addition, pertussis vaccination is recommended (but not funded) for:

  • Parents/guardians of a baby under 6 months of age (if they have not received a dose in the last 10 years)
  • Adults aged 65 years and older who have not received a pertussis-containing vaccine in the last 10 years
  • Any adult who wishes to be protected against pertussis infection who has not received a dose in the last 10 years (including healthcare workers, travellers, and early childhood educators and carers).

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Grey shaded boxes – Not routinely recommended for use in this age group.
* ATAGI recommends the use of Infanrix Hexa瓦克斯利斯 in children aged < 10 years. However, the Royal Children’s Hospital (RCH) preferentially uses them up to < 18 years in instances where multiple vaccines are required (e.g. catch up, post chemotherapy/post HSCT). 


Common side effects from pertussis vaccination include 注射部位反应, fever, lethargy, headache and irritability in infants and young children. Rare side effects include allergic reaction and hypotonic-hyporesponsive episode (HHE) in infants. There has been a decrease in the incidence of HHE following the change from whole-cell pertussis to acellular pertussis vaccines on the .

作者: Mel Addison (SAEFVIC Research Nurse, Murdoch Children’s Research Institute), Rachael McGuire (SAEFVIC Research Nurse, Murdoch Children’s Research Institute)

审核人: Rachael McGuire(教育护士协调员) and Katie Butler (MVEC Education Nurse Coordinator)

日期: October 2023


You should not consider the information on this site to be specific, professional medical advice for your personal health or for your family’s personal health. For medical concerns, including decisions about vaccinations, medications and other treatments, you should always consult a healthcare professional.


The Paediatric Active Enhanced Disease Surveillance (PAEDS) network is a hospital-based active surveillance system employing prospective case ascertainment for selected serious childhood conditions, particularly vaccine preventable diseases and potential adverse events following immunisation (AEFI). PAEDS data is used to better understand these conditions, inform policy and practice under the National Immunisation Program, and enable rapid public health responses for certain conditions of public health importance. PAEDS enhances data available from other Australian surveillance systems by providing prospective, detailed clinical and laboratory information on children with selected conditions.

PAEDS consists of a network of clinicians and public health researchers in 7 tertiary paediatric hospitals across Australia.

  • The Royal Children’s Hospital, Melbourne, Victoria
  • Monash Children’s Hospital, Clayton, Victoria
  • The Children’s Hospital at Westmead, Sydney, New South Wales
  • Women’s and Children’s Hospital, Adelaide, South Australia
  • Perth Children’s Hospital, Perth, Western Australia
  • Queensland Children’s Hospital, Brisbane, Queensland
  • The Royal Darwin Hospital, Darwin, Northern Territory

The PAEDS group is jointly funded by the Commonwealth and State Departments of Health, with some grant funding for specific conditions.

The current conditions under surveillance by the PAEDS network are:

  • Acute Flaccid Paralysis (A condition causing paralysis and loss of tone in one or more limbs, which can be caused by the polio virus)
  • Intussusception (A rare type of bowel obstruction seen in infants)
  • Varicella (chicken pox) and herpes zoster (shingles) requiring hospitalisation
  • Pertussis (Whooping cough)
  • Acute Childhood Encephalitis (Inflammation and/or infection of the brain)
  • Influenza (Seasonal flu)
  • Invasive Meningococcal Disease (Severe bacterial sepsis and/or meningitis)
  • Invasive Group A Streptococcus (A severe bacterial infection)
  • Kawasaki Disease (rare disease in which blood vessels throughout the body become inflamed)
  • Gram Negative Bloodstream Infections (serious bacterial infections in the bloodstream)
  • COVID-19 (SARS-CoV-2)
  • PIMS-TS (Paediatric Inflammatory Multisystem Syndrome temporally associated with SARS-CoV-2)

Contact Information

For more information about the PAEDS group in Melbourne, please contact the study team on:

The Royal Children’s Hospital

(03) 9345 5066 [email protected]


(03) 8572 3581


A/Professor Nigel Crawford [email protected]

A/Professor Jim Buttery [email protected]

PAEDS Network Website


作者: Alissa McMinn (Research Manager, SAEFVIC, Murdoch Children’s Research Institute)

审核人: Alissa McMinn (Research Manager, SAEFVIC, Murdoch Children’s Research Institute)

日期: October 2020