इन्फ्लुएंजा क्या है?

मेनिंगोकोकल रोग बैक्टीरिया के कारण होने वाली किसी भी बीमारी का गठन करता है नाइस्सेरिया मेनिंजाइटिस। 13 ज्ञात उप-प्रकार (सेरोग्रुप) हैं और इनमें से 5 वर्तमान में टीके रोके जा सकते हैं (बी और ए, सी, डब्ल्यू, वाई)।

इनवेसिव मेनिंगोकोकल रोग (IMD) मेनिन्जाइटिस (मस्तिष्क और रीढ़ की हड्डी को ढकने वाली झिल्ली की सूजन) और सेप्टीसीमिया (रक्त में संक्रमण) के साथ-साथ निमोनिया (फेफड़ों में संक्रमण), गठिया (जोड़ों की सूजन) और अन्य संक्रमणों का कारण बन सकता है। नेत्रश्लेष्मलाशोथ (नेत्र संक्रमण)। मृत्यु दर (मृत्यु) 5-10% जितनी अधिक हो सकती है, जो जीवित रहने वालों में 10-20% में स्थायी आजीवन जटिलताएं होती हैं।

किन लक्षणों पर नज़र रखने की आवश्यकता है?

The incubation period of meningococcal is 1-7 days, more commonly 3-4 days. People with meningococcal disease can become extremely unwell very quickly. Symptoms can include fever, headache, neck stiffness, nausea, vomiting and photophobia (sensitivity to light). Cool, mottled extremities and leg pain can also occur. Babies can appear irritable or unsettled, have a high-pitched moaning cry, refuse or not wake for feeds and be lethargic (sleepy) or floppy. A petechial or purpuric rash can appear late in the disease progression (within 13-22 hours) or not at all.

यह कैसे संचारित होता है?

Disease can be transmitted from person to person via respiratory droplets (eg. sneezing and coughing). Meningococcal bacteria can also live harmlessly at the back of the nose or throat, resulting in individuals being asymptomatic carriers.

एपिडेमियोलॉजी (महामारी विज्ञान)

Children < 2 years of age have the highest incidence of meningococcal disease in Australia, with another peak of disease among adolescents and young adults (15-24 years). आदिवासी और टोरेस स्ट्रेट आइलैंडर people have a much greater burden of disease than non-Indigenous people.

There are also certain medical conditions and medications that can increase an individual’s risk of IMD. These include (but are not limited to) those with functional asplenia and hyposplenia, complement deficiency and those receiving treatment with eculizamab [see below for specific information for those with increased risk of IMD].

रोकथामं

MVEC strongly recommends everyone wishing to be protected against ACWY and B strains of meningococcal disease be immunised. Some individuals are eligible for funded vaccines via the National Immunisation Program (NIP). Those aged ≥ 6 weeks of age who do not meet the funding criteria can purchase vaccines privately through some परिषदों, जीपी और फार्मेसियों.

The number of vaccine doses recommended depends on a person’s age and risk factors for IMD.

Meningococcal ACWY vaccines

There are 3 conjugate meningococcal ACWY vaccines available:

  • Nimenrix
  • MenQuadfi
  • Menveo

Nimenrix is currently provided for free on the NIP for children aged 12 months of age (single dose) and for people of any age with specified medical risk factors ie.g., . (see below for number of doses recommended). Adolescents in Year 10 (or age equivalent) and those aged 15-19 years on a catch up schedule are funded to receive MenQuadfi.

  • Meningococcal ACWY primary course and booster doses for healthy individuals

    प्राथमिक पाठ्यक्रम

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    † there is no registered upper age limit for the use of Nimenrix, MenQuadfi or Menveo.
    ¥ completing the course with the same vaccine brand is preferred but may not always be practical. The NIP funded 12 month dose of Nimenrix may be used as the dose given at ≥ 12 months of age to complete a course.
    एन/ए- इस आयु वर्ग में अनुशंसित नहीं है।
    ^ MenQuadfi is funded on the NIP for Year 10 students (or age equivalent), and those completing catch-up aged 15-19.

    बूस्टर खुराक

    Further booster doses are not routinely recommended for healthy individuals. In circumstances where someone has previously received a primary course of meningococcal ACWY and is offered a further dose in year 10 in line with the NIP, it is acceptable to to receive this dose.

  • Meningococcal ACWY primary course and booster doses for those at increased risk of IMD

    Individuals with specified medical conditions that increase the risk of IMD are recommended and funded to receive additional meningococcal vaccines and booster doses. These groups include:

    • those with defects in, or deficiency of complement components (including factor H, factor D or properdin deficiency),
    • those currently receiving or planning treatment with eculizumab (or biosimilar),
    • those with functional or anatomical asplenia (including sickle cell disease or haemoglobinopathies and congenital or acquired asplenia),
    • anyone with HIV (regardless of disease stage or CD4+ cell count),
    • anyone who previously received a haemopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT).

    प्राथमिक पाठ्यक्रम

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    † there is no registered upper age limit for the use of Nimenrix, MenQuadfi or Menveo.
    ¥ completing the course with the same vaccine brand is preferred but may not always be practical. The NIP funded 12 month dose of Nimenrix may be used as the dose given at ≥ 12 months of age to complete a course.
    एन/ए- इस आयु वर्ग में अनुशंसित नहीं है।
    ^ MenQuadfi is funded on the NIP as a single for Year 10 students (or age equivalent), and those completing catch-up aged 15-19. However, only Nimenrix is funded on the NIP as a course of vaccination for those with specified medical risk factors.

    बूस्टर खुराक

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    † there is no registered upper age limit for the use of Nimenrix, MenQuadfi or Menveo.
    § regardless of the brand used for completing a primary course, there is no preference for using either Nimenrix, MenQuadfi or Menveo as a booster dose. However, only Nimenrix is funded on the NIP for people requiring meningococcal ACWY vaccination due to medical risk factors.

Meningococcal B vaccines

There are currently 2 vaccines available for protection against meningococcal B disease.

  • Bexsero
  • Trumenba

Meningococcal B vaccines brands are नहीं विनिमेय।

A primary course of Bexsero is available on the NIP for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander children < 2 years of age, as well as some individuals of any age with immunocompromising conditions.

Paracetamol advice

It is widely recognised that children receiving Bexsero are more likely to experience बुखार following vaccination. It is for this reason that children < 4 years of age are recommended to receive prophylactic paracetamol (15mg/kg per dose) 30 minutes prior to vaccination (or as soon as possible after), as well as 2 subsequent doses (4-6 hours apart) to reduce the likelihood and severity of fever. This should be administered regardless of whether the child is experiencing a fever or not.

  • Meningococcal B primary course and booster doses for healthy individuals

    प्राथमिक पाठ्यक्रम

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    † Bexsero is registered for use in those 6 weeks of age and older. Trumenba is only registered for use in those 10 years of age or older.
    ¥ meningococcal B vaccine brands are नहीं प्राथमिक पाठ्यक्रमों या बूस्टर खुराक के लिए विनिमेय।
    # prophylactic paracetamol is recommended to those < 4 years of age (refer to advice above).
    £ funded on the NIP for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander children < 2 years of age and those identified as medically at risk (see recommendations below for further information).
    एन/ए- इस आयु वर्ग में अनुशंसित नहीं है।

    बूस्टर खुराक

    Further booster doses of meningococcal B vaccines are not routinely recommended for healthy individuals.

  • Meningococcal B primary course and booster doses for those with increased risk of IMD

    Individuals with specified medical conditions that increase the risk of IMD are recommended and funded to receive additional meningococcal B vaccines. From December 2022, following an NCIRS-led GRADE review of the evidence, अतगी endorsed an update to the Australian Immunisation Handbook recommendations which now include booster doses of meningococcal B vaccines.

    Eligible individuals include:

    • those with defects in, or deficiency of complement components (including factor H, factor D or properdin deficiency),
    • those currently receiving or planning treatment with eculizumab (or biosimilar),
    • those with functional or anatomical asplenia (including sickle cell disease or haemoglobinopathies and congenital or acquired asplenia),
    • anyone with HIV (regardless of disease stage or CD4+ cell count),
    • anyone who previously received a haemopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT).

    MVEC strongly encourages the active follow up of individuals who meet these criteria to ensure that appropriate vaccine schedules and their recommended booster doses are administered in line with the updated guidance to optimally protect vulnerable patients.

    प्राथमिक पाठ्यक्रम

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    † Bexsero is registered for use in those 6 weeks of age and older. Trumenba is only registered for use in those 10 years of age or older.
    ¥ meningococcal B vaccine brands are नहीं equivalent or interchangeable for primary courses or booster doses.
    # prophylactic paracetamol is recommended to those < 4 years of age (refer to advice above).
    एन/ए- इस आयु वर्ग में अनुशंसित नहीं है।

    बूस्टर खुराक§

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    § refer to GRADE assessment अधिक जानकारी के लिए।
    † Bexsero is registered for use in those 6 weeks of age and older. Trumenba is only registered for use in those 10 years of age or older.
    ¥ meningococcal B vaccine brands are नहीं equivalent or interchangeable for primary courses or booster doses.
    एन/ए- इस आयु वर्ग में अनुशंसित नहीं है।

लेखक: Rachael McGuire (MVEC Education Nurse Coordinator), Georgina Lewis (Clinical Nurse Manager, SAEFVIC, Murdoch Children’s Research Institute) and Nigel Crawford (Director SAEFVIC, Murdoch Children’s Research Institute)

द्वारा समीक्षित: राचेल मैकगायर (MVEC शिक्षा नर्स समन्वयक)

तारीख: June 2024

नई जानकारी और टीके उपलब्ध होते ही इस अनुभाग की सामग्रियों को अद्यतन किया जाता है। मेलबर्न वैक्सीन एजुकेशन सेंटर (MVEC) कर्मचारी सटीकता के लिए नियमित रूप से सामग्रियों की समीक्षा करते हैं।

आपको इस साइट की जानकारी को अपने व्यक्तिगत स्वास्थ्य या अपने परिवार के व्यक्तिगत स्वास्थ्य के लिए विशिष्ट, पेशेवर चिकित्सा सलाह नहीं मानना चाहिए। टीकाकरण, दवाओं और अन्य उपचारों के बारे में निर्णय सहित चिकित्सा संबंधी चिंताओं के लिए, आपको हमेशा एक स्वास्थ्य देखभाल पेशेवर से परामर्श लेना चाहिए।