यह क्या है?

COVID-19 disease is caused by an infection with the highly contagious SARS-CoV-2 virus, a type of coronavirus discovered in 2019. The virus spread rapidly and led to a global pandemic. Multiple strains and subvariants of SARS-CoV-2 have since emerged. The different strains and subvariants vary both in the severity of symptoms they cause and how transmissible they are. 

COVID-19 disease has had vast impacts on society. In addition to the public health implications, the economic, social and mental health effects have been and continue to be significant.  

किसकी तलाश है?

Infections can be asymptomatic or can result in a spectrum of symptoms, from mild respiratory symptoms to more serious disease affecting multiple organs and systems. Severe disease can lead to hospitalisation, mechanical ventilation, and can be fatal.   

Common symptoms of acute COVID-19 infection can include fever, cough, myalgia (body aches), dyspnoea (difficulty breathing), gastrointestinal symptoms (e.g., diarrhoea, nausea or vomiting), headache, sore throat, loss of smell or taste, and rhinorrhoea (runny nose).   

Some individuals can experience ongoing symptoms for weeks or months after their initial diagnosis, known as long COVID or post-COVID conditions. Symptoms can include extreme fatigue, post-exertional malaise, dyspnoea , chest pain, heart palpitations, fever, arthralgia (joint pain), paresthesia (pins and needles), rash, hoarse voice, problems with memory and concentration (brain fog), sleep problems, changes with taste or smell, gastrointestinal symptoms, changes in menstrual cycles, weight loss and poor appetite, mood changes (depression, anxiety), and difficulty completing activities of daily living. In addition, long COVID can have a huge impact on an individual’s quality of life, mental health and ability to participate in work or schooling. Long COVID is more common in people who have experienced severe COVID-19 disease, those who had underlying medical conditions prior to infection (e.g. hypertension, chronic lung disease, diabetes, obesity) and those who are unvaccinated. 

Paediatric Multisystem Inflammatory Syndrome Temporally associated with SARS-CoV-2 (PIMS-TS), or Multisystem Inflammatory Syndrome in Children associated with COVID-19 (MIS-C), is a newly described condition that has been reported in children in the first 2-6 weeks after COVID-19 infection. It is an inflammatory condition, similar to कावासाकी रोग, और दाने, बुखार, सदमा और पेट दर्द की विशेषता है। पीआईएमएस-टीएस से पीड़ित बच्चों को इलाज के लिए लगभग हमेशा अस्पताल में भर्ती करने की आवश्यकता होती है।

यह कैसे संचारित होता है?

COVID-19 is transmitted through the inhalation of virus particles made airborne when an infected person coughs, sneezes, breathes, speaks or sings. Droplets containing virus particles can contaminate surfaces and can be spread when a person touches these surfaces and then touches their nose, mouth or eyes. Poorly ventilated settings can also contribute to the spread of COVID-19 because aerosol particles can remain suspended in the air for several hours longer than in well-ventilated settings (minutes to hours). 

The incubation period for the disease is 1 को 14 days, with most individuals displaying symptoms 5 को 6 days after being exposed. Individuals are most infectious in the 2 days before their symptoms begin और the early stages का their illness. People with asymptomatic disease can still infect others.   

एपिडेमियोलॉजी

2019 के बाद से, खत्म 770 million infections यह बताया गया है कि दुनिया भर में लगभग 7 मिलियन मौतों में इसका योगदान है, सही आंकड़े इससे कहीं अधिक होने की संभावना है। 

Individuals with immunocompromise, advancing age (particularly > 70 years), obesity, respiratory conditions, pregnancy, heart disease, diabetes, renal disease, liver disease, neurological conditions and disability are more likely to experience severe symptoms if infected with SARS-CoV-2. 

Certain occupations, such as working in healthcare, increase likelihood of exposure to SARS-CoV-2 and therefore infection.  

Repeat infections can occur.  

निवारण

Strategies to reduce risk of transmission of COVID-19 disease include standard precautions such as hand hygiene, wearing masks when remaining socially distant is not possible and ensuring indoor spaces have good ventilation.  

Vaccination aims to reduce the severity of COVID-19 symptoms and the need for hospitalisation. There are 3 vaccine brands available for use within Australia: 

  • Comirnaty (Pfizer) vaccine containing nucleoside-modified mRNA encoding the spike glycoprotein of SARS-CoV-2   
  • Spikevax (Moderna) vaccine containing nucleoside-modified mRNA encoding the spike glycoprotein of SARS-CoV-2   
  • Nuvaxovid (Novavax) vaccine containing SARS-CoV-2 spike glycoprotein, adjuvanted with Matrix-M.

Of these vaccine brands, there are alternatives based on which strain or subvariant of SARS-CoV-2 they target and different strength formulations for different age groups. Monovalent vaccines target a single strain, whereas bivalent vaccines target 2 strains.  

The first COVID-19 vaccines targeted the ancestral strain of the SARS-CoV-2 virus. Newer vaccines target the strains that are now circulating. While the SARS-CoV-2 virus continues to mutate, new vaccines are likely to be on the horizon.  

All COVID-19 vaccines provide protection against severe COVID-19 symptoms. However, vaccines targeting the current circulating strains are preferentially recommended (if available for use in that age group).  

प्राथमिक पाठ्यक्रम

टीकाकरण का एक प्राथमिक कोर्स 5 वर्ष की आयु से सभी व्यक्तियों के लिए अनुशंसित है। Immunocompetent individuals (those with a functioning immune system) should receive 2 doses, 8 weeks apart. Those with immunocompromise प्रत्येक खुराक के बीच 8 सप्ताह के अंतराल के साथ, 3 खुराकें मिलनी चाहिए।

Children aged 6 months to ≤ 4 years with severe immunocompromise, certain disabilities and those who have complex and/or multiple health conditions which increase the risk of severe COVID-19 should also receive a primary course of COVID-19 vaccination. In this age group, a primary course consists of 3 doses with 8 weeks between each dose, regardless of immune function (refer to table below for ageappropriate vaccine). 

बूस्टर खुराक

Recommendations for booster doses vary depending on the age of the individual and their risk factors for severe disease. An interval of at least 6 months since a confirmed COVID-19 infection/previous booster or primary course is recommended before administering a booster dose. Booster doses अनुशंसित नहीं हैं for anyone less than 5 years of age. 

 For recommendations on COVID-19 booster doses, see ATAGI advice on boosters (last updated in September 2023). 

Vaccines brands and type available for use by age group

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छायांकित बक्से प्रत्येक आयु वर्ग में उपयोग किए जाने वाले पसंदीदा टीके के प्रकार को दर्शाते हैं।
छायांकित बक्से दर्शाते हैं कि इस आयु वर्ग में उपयोग के लिए टीका उपलब्ध नहीं है।
 shaded boxes indicate newly available vaccines (from December 2023).

टीकाकरण के बाद दुष्प्रभाव

सामान्य दुष्प्रभाव 

Most side effects following COVID-19 vaccination are mild and can include इंजेक्शन स्थल पर दर्द, fatigue, headache, lymphadenopathy and fever. 

दुर्लभ दुष्प्रभाव  

मायोकार्डिटिस (हृदय की मांसपेशियों की सूजन) और पेरिकार्डिटिस (हृदय के चारों ओर अस्तर की सूजन) are rare conditions that have been reported following administration of COVID-19 vaccines. They are most commonly associated with viral infections (including COVID-19 disease) but can also be triggered by other factors such as medications and autoimmune conditions. In the setting of vaccination, the peak risk group for myocarditis is young adult males aged between 16 and 24 years following a second dose of vaccination. Pericarditis occurring after vaccination is more common in the 20 to 45 year old age group for both males and females. 

थ्रोम्बोसाइटोपेनिया (टीटीएस) के साथ घनास्त्रता यह एक दुर्लभ स्थिति थी जो उन लोगों में घटित होने की सूचना मिली थी जिन्होंने पहले COVID-19 वैक्सीन वैक्सजेवरिया (एस्ट्राजेनेका) प्राप्त की थी।. Since March 2023, Vaxzevria is no longer available for use in Australia.

सामान्यतः पूछे जाने वाले प्रश्न

  • Why are monovalent XBB.1.5 vaccines preferentially recommended?

    All currently available COVID-19 vaccines provide strong protection against severe disease. एचowever, monovalent XBB.1.5 vaccines show a modest increase in protection against the predominant circulating strains. 

  • क्या गर्भवती या स्तनपान कराने वाली महिलाओं को COVID-19 टीके मिल सकते हैं?

    हाँ, गर्भावस्था के किसी भी चरण में COVID-19 टीके लगाना सुरक्षित है। इससे गर्भवती महिलाओं और उनके अजन्मे बच्चों पर गंभीर परिणाम का खतरा बढ़ जाता है अनुशंसित कि गर्भवती महिलाओं को COVID-19 टीकाकरण का प्राथमिक कोर्स प्राप्त हो गया है। यदि देय हो तो बूस्टर खुराक देने पर भी विचार किया जा सकता है।

    स्तनपान कराने वाली महिलाएं COVID-19 टीके प्राप्त कर सकती हैं। उन्हें टीकाकरण से पहले या बाद में स्तनपान बंद करने की आवश्यकता नहीं है।

    गर्भवती महिलाओं में एमआरएनए कोविड-19 वैक्सीन प्रशासन पर अंतरराष्ट्रीय डेटा की वास्तविक विश्व निगरानी ने मां या बच्चे के लिए कोई महत्वपूर्ण सुरक्षा चिंता नहीं दिखाई है। इसके अलावा, टीका लगाने वाली महिलाओं के गर्भनाल रक्त और स्तन के दूध में एंटीबॉडी का पता चला है, जो बच्चे को सुरक्षा के हस्तांतरण का सुझाव देता है।

  • मैं COVID-19 टीके कहां से प्राप्त कर सकता हूं?

    Individuals aged ≥ 5 years can access COVID-19 vaccines through GP clinics और some pharmacies. Children aged 6 months to ≤ 4 years can receive COVID-19 vaccines through एचospital immunisation services at मोनाश चिल्ड्रन हॉस्पिटल, रॉयल चिल्ड्रेन हॉस्पिटल और जोन किर्नर महिला एवं बाल अस्पताल (सनशाइन). अपने निकटतम प्रदाता को ढूंढने और अपॉइंटमेंट लेने के लिए यहां जाएं Health direct website.  

  • COVID-19 संक्रमण और टीकाकरण के बीच अनुशंसित अंतराल क्या है?

    एक 6 महीने का अंतराल कोविड-19 संक्रमण और कोविड-19 टीकाकरण के बीच (प्राथमिक खुराक या बूस्टर खुराक) की सिफारिश की जाती है।

  • क्या COVID-19 टीके अन्य टीकों की तरह उसी दिन लगाए जा सकते हैं?

    In most instances COVID-19 vaccines can be co-administered (given on the same day) with other vaccines, including influenza vaccines.  

    The only exception to this is for children aged 6 months to < 5 years, where separating COVID-19 vaccines and other vaccines by 7 to 14 days is preferred.  This recommendation aims to minimise adverse events such as fever, which can occur in the 3 days following inactivated vaccines and 7 को 10 days post vaccination with the live-attenuated MMR vaccine.  In children under 5 years, COVID-19 टीकाs may be co-administered if separating vaccines would be logistically challenging (e.g. distant travel required to access vaccines, limited days available to attend vaccine appointments). 

  • How do we complete a primary course of vaccination for children < 5 years who started with Spikevax?

    Immunocompetent children who commenced their primary course with 1 dose of Spikevax (Moderna), can complete their primary course with a single dose of age-appropriate कोमिरनेटी (फाइजर). Severely immunocompromised children who received 1 dose of Spikevax (Moderna) should receive a further 2 doses of Comirnaty (Pfizer) 8 weeks apart to complete the primary course. Severely immunocompromised children who received 2 doses of Spikevax (Moderna) should receive 1 further dose of Comirnaty (Pfizer) 8 weeks later to complete the primary course. 

संसाधन

लेखक: फ्रांसेस्का मचिंगाइफा (एमवीईसी एजुकेशन नर्स कोऑर्डिनेटर) और राचेल मैकगायर (एमवीईसी एजुकेशन नर्स कोऑर्डिनेटर)

द्वारा समीक्षित: Rachael McGuire (MVEC Education Nurse Coordinator) and Katie Butler (MVEC Education Nurse)

तारीख: December 2023

नई जानकारी और टीके उपलब्ध होते ही इस अनुभाग की सामग्रियों को अद्यतन किया जाता है। मेलबर्न वैक्सीन एजुकेशन सेंटर (MVEC) कर्मचारी सटीकता के लिए नियमित रूप से सामग्रियों की समीक्षा करते हैं।

आपको इस साइट की जानकारी को अपने व्यक्तिगत स्वास्थ्य या अपने परिवार के व्यक्तिगत स्वास्थ्य के लिए विशिष्ट, पेशेवर चिकित्सा सलाह नहीं मानना चाहिए। टीकाकरण, दवाओं और अन्य उपचारों के बारे में निर्णय सहित चिकित्सा संबंधी चिंताओं के लिए, आपको हमेशा एक स्वास्थ्य देखभाल पेशेवर से परामर्श लेना चाहिए।